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Glossary of Terms

A

A/A Testing

A method of comparing two versions of a webpage or mobile app experience against each other in order to test the accuracy of the testing tool. It may be used to establish a baseline conversion rate or range for a future test.

To understand more about A/A testing and how this can be used please read “article name”

A/B Testing

Often called split testing, A/B testing is comparing two versions of a webpage or mobile app experience against each other to determine which performs best.

A/B/N Testing

An extension of A/B testing this is a method of comparing multiple versions of webpage or mobile app against each other to determine which performs best.

ABOVE THE FOLD

The top most portion of a webpage that is visible without users having to scroll on a desktop mobile or tablet device.

AVERAGE ORDER VALUE (AOV)

The average amount spent each time a customer places an order on a website or mobile app. Calculated by the total revenue being divided by the total transactions for a set time period.

Average order value = total revenue / total transactions

AVERAGE TIME ON PAGE

The amount of time users spend on a specific page, calculated by dividing the total amount of time spent on a page by the total number of page views.

It is worth noting that if using Google Analytics this metric does not count those who exit the page as they cannot establish how long they spent on the page. This makes the final formula the below:

Avg Time on Page = Time on Page / ( Pageviews – Exits)

B

BACK END

The portion of a website or Web application (including the underlying database) that does not interact with the end user.

BACK TESTING

The act of implementing a change on-site and then running a test against the original version using a small proportion of the total traffic to confirm an increase in performance.

BELOW THE FOLD

The portion of a webpage that is not immediately visible when the page loads that requires users to scroll to see.

BOUNCE

When a visitor arrives on a website and leaves without viewing other pages on the website, it is called a bounce.

BOUNCE RATE

The percentage of visitors that end up bouncing from a website or a specific webpage.

Bounce rate can often be a misleading metric due to how it is calculated. To find out more about this read “Article Name”

BAYESIAN ANALYSIS

A method of statistical inference that is used to update the probability of a hypothesis as more evidence and information becomes available.

C

CALL TO ACTION (CTA)

A call to action is a prompt on a website that tells the user to take some specified action.

CART ABANDONMENT

Cart abandonment occurs when eCommerce website visitors initiate the purchase process of a product but don’t buy it at the end.

CHURN RATE (ATTRITION RATE)

The percentage of customers of a service that discontinue using the service in a specific interval of time. A high churn rate often indicates that a company’s services are not satisfactory.

CLICK-THROUGH RATE (CTR)

The percentage of people that click on an element that they have been exposed to.

CONTENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (CMS)

An application that allows multiple contributors to create, edit and publish web content.

CONTROL

The original version of your page/landing page against which all other variations are compared. There is only ever one control in a test

CONVERSION

When a user completes some predetermined action on your site.

CONVERSION RATE

The number of conversions on a webpage or app divided by the total number of visitors.

CONVERSION RATE OPTIMIZATION (CRO)

The process of increasing the percentage of conversions from a website or mobile app.

Or

Doing clever things on-site to make people buy more.

CONFIDENCE LEVEL

A statistical term indicating the probability that a variation in an A/B test won not because of chance. This term is often used interchangeably with ‘Significance’.

CRAWLING

The act of Search Engine Spider indexing websites on the World Wide Web

CONTENT

Content has been referred to as many things within digital marketing. For CROers this refers to any information, text or imagery present with a webpage.

CRITICAL RENDERING PATH

The important elements of a page that is prioritised on load allowing the browser to render the visible aspects of page to a user in the quickest possible time.

D

DECISION FATIGUE

When the mind becomes fatigued after a sustained period of decision-making, such as when faced with too many options on a website.

DEEP LINK

The use of a hyperlink that links to a specific piece of web content rather than the website’s homepage. Deep linking can also describe the act of links to carry specific information forward to other parts of the website. E.g. if you are browsing a page about the city of London and clicked to book a flight, deep linking could place your destination as ‘London’ in the flight booking engine.

E

EXPERIENCE OPTIMISATION

The process of providing your customers with the best possible experience across all touch points through analytics, user research, A/B testing, and personalisation.

EXIT RATE

The percentage of total user who view a page that subsequently leave the site from that page. E.g. 10 of 100 visitors to page ‘A’ leave the site from that page; page ‘A’ has an exit rate of 10%

ENTRANCES

The number of instances of a users registering a first page-view or screen-view hit of a session.

F

FRONT END

The portion of a website of Web application that interacts with and is seen by the visitor. Often used interchangeably with the term user interface.

FREQUENTEST ANALYSIS

A type of statistical inference that emphasises the frequency or proportion of an event from a sample data to draw conclusions.

H

HEATMAP

A pictorial representation of data such as clicks and scrolls that uses a system of color-coding similar to how heat is measure to represent different values.

HERO IMAGE

Usually a large image or video at the top of a web page, often extending full-width and featuring a CTA and/or value proposition.

HYPOTHESIS

A tentative assumption that changing a specific element(s) of a website will lead to higher number of conversions.

HEURISTICS

Our combined knowledge and experience create strategies that allow us to make decisions and problem solve in a world with unlimited information called heuristics. These are readily accessible and relatively effortless and unconscious.

I

INBOUND MARKETING

A marketing methodology that is designed to draw visitors and potential customers in, rather than outwardly pushing a brand, product or service onto prospects.

INFORMATION SCENT

Visual and textual cues that provide website visitors with hints on what information a site contains.

L

LANDING PAGE

A landing page is the first page that a visitor lands on as a result of a traffic acquisition activity. The landing page can be a stand-alone page, a part of a special purpose micro-site, or a page on the company’s main website.

LANDING PAGE OPTIMISATION

The process of improving elements on a landing page to increase conversions.

LEAD GENERATION

The process of generating consumer interest for a product or service with the goal of turning that interest into a sale.

LIFETIME VALUE

An estimate of the average revenue that your customers will generate throughout their lifespan as a customer.

LOAD TIME

Page load time is the time it takes to download and display the entire content of a web page in the browser window. Usually measured in seconds or milliseconds it is helpful in identifying when a page is fully loaded.

M

MARKETING TECHNOLOGY STACK

A grouping of technologies that marketers leverage to conduct and improve their marketing activities.

MULTIVARIATE TESTING

A technique for testing a hypothesis where multiple variables are modified, in order to determine the best combination of variations on those elements of a website or mobile app.

N

NULL HYPOTHESIS

In statistical testing, the assumption that there is no difference in outcomes based on changes to the test variables. If there is a significant observed effect, the null hypothesis is said to be “rejected”.

P

PAGE VALUE

Page Value is the average value for a page that a user visited before converting. The value of the conversion divided by the total number of unique page-views for that specific page.

E-commerce Revenue + Total Goal Value

Number of Unique Page-views for Given Page

PAGES PER SESSION

This is the average number of pages users see on an individual session over the specific time period selected.

PERSONA

A detailed profile of a hypothetical person representing an important class of visitors to your site. The persona allows you to empathise with them and understand their needs. Used as the basis for constructing a relevant and effective conversion experience.

POP UP SURVEYS

Usually part of a larger tools offering pop-up survey allows you to ask users questions on any pages of your site without leaving the webpage.

PAGEVIEWS

The instance of an user visiting a particular page on a website.

R

REVENUE PER VISITOR

A metric for website performance calculated by dividing the total revenue by the total number of visitors to your website.

RESPONSIVE WEBSITE DESIGN (RWD)

A website with responsive design adapts its layout to that of the viewing environment (mobile, desktop or tablet) to provide an optimum viewing experience to visitors.

S

SALES FUNNEL

The path taken by a potential customer through a website or app as they move towards becoming a customer.

SOCIAL PROOF

Evidence that a product or service is popular with a large number of people.

SPLIT TESTING

A strategy for conducting controlled, randomised experiments with the goal of improving a conversion metric on a website or mobile app.

Or

It is an umbrella term that covers both A/B testing and Split URL testing.

SCROLL DEPTH

Scroll Depth measures how far users are scrolling down a page. It can be set up in Google Analytics with a simple plug in or can be monitored through various heat mapping tools.

SPLIT-URL TESTING

Involves testing multiple versions of a webpage that are hosted on different URLs.

SIGNIFICANT POWER

The likelihood that a test will detect an effect when there is an effect there to be detected. If statistical power is high, the probability of making a Type II error goes down. This is effected by the size of the effect and the size of the sample.

SQUEEZE PAGE

A landing page which is specifically designed to ‘squeeze’ e-mail addresses out of visitors and prospects.

STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE

The likelihood that the difference in conversion rates between a given variation and the baseline is not due to random chance (See also ‘Confidence Level’)

STANDARD ERROR

The degree to which the result of an A/B test can be apart from the actual figure is called standard error.

SITE SEARCH

An internal search that is restricted to an individual website, providing search results on products, articles or other pages. Usually identified as a magnifying glass and text field, most websites have one to support a user’s quest for information.

SESSIONS

Defined as a group of interactions one user takes within a given time frame on your website within 30 minutes. Meaning whatever a user does on your website (e.g. browses pages, downloads resources, purchases products) before they leave equals one session

SESSION RECORDINGS

Session Recordings is a tool usually coupled with heat mapping software that allows you to record all activities on a website or webpage.

T

TEST SIGNIFICANCE

Referring to the significance of any statistical difference between the control and variations within a test (note this separate from ‘Population Significance’)

TIME TO FIRST BYTE

Used to indicate the responsiveness of a web-server or other network resource, time to first byte (TTFB) measure the time take from a user making a HTTP request to the first byte of the page being received by the user’s browser.

TRUST BADGES

Small logos or icons that convince visitors about the safety and credibility of the website.

TYPE 1 TESTING ERROR

A type 1 error is the rejection of a true null hypothesis and the equivalent of a false positive. It occurs when the the data suggest a variation performs significantly better than a control. If you run to a 95% confidence level and run 100 tests there is a 5% probability of us rejecting a true null hypothesis.

TYPE 2 TESTING ERROR

A type 2 error occurs when we do not reject a true null hypothesis and is the equivalent of a false negative. It occurs when the data suggest there is no significant difference between two testing variation when in fact there is.

U

UNIQUE SELLING POINT (USP)

The competitive differentiators that a business has over its competitors.

USABILITY TESTING

A method of evaluating a website’s or app’s readiness for release by testing it with real users who are part of your target audience.

USER FLOW

The path taken by a prototypical user on a website or app to complete a task.

USER-CENTERED DESIGN

A philosophy and practice that considers the needs and background of the intended user of an object or interface as central to the design process.

USER EXPERIENCE (UX)

A series of specific user interactions with a website form a larger user experience.

USERS

A user refers to the individual operating the website or mobile app. Google represents this as a client ID which is a combination of random numbers and a time stamp determined by the Google Analytics Cookie.

UNIQUE PAGEVIEWS

A unique page-view is an aggregation of page views that are generated by the same user during the same session.

USER RESEARCH

User research focuses on understanding user behaviours, needs, and motivations through a range of qualitative research methods. This can include but is not limited to observation techniques such as user testing, task analysis, interviews, and focus groups.

V

VARIANT

The new page/change that you are testing against the control. Test can have many variants.

VALUE PROPOSITION

The essence of the value that your product or service provides to the customer.

VISITOR SEGMENTATION

The process of dividing your visitors to your website based on specific criteria, such as demographics or user behaviour.

VIEW PORT

The viewport controls how a webpage is displayed on different devices. Responsive sites require a viewport to be set and gives control over the page’s width and scaling on different devices.

W

WEB ANALYTICS

The measurement and analysis of data to inform an understanding of user behaviour across web pages.

WEBSITE PERSONALISATION

The process of creating customised experiences for visitors to a website.